Global Ireland: Same Difference (Globalizing Re...
Over the last couple of centuries the world economy has experienced sustained positive economic growth, and over the same period, this process of economic growth has been accompanied by even faster growth in global trade.
Global Ireland: Same Difference (Globalizing Re...
So, if all series are in the same units (share of national GDP), and they all measure the same thing (value of goods exported from one country to the rest of the world), what explains the differences?
Thirty-three countries, including the United States, have legalized same-sex marriage, and some others recognize same-sex civil unions. Yet same-sex marriage remains banned in many countries, and the expansion of broader LGBTQ+ rights has been uneven globally. International organizations, including the United Nations, have issued resolutions in support of LGBTQ+ rights, but human rights groups say these organizations have limited power to enforce them.
As of 2015, three-in-four unaffiliated people live in Asia and the Pacific. But that share is expected to decline to 66% by 2060 due to low fertility and an aging population. At the same time, a growing share of the unaffiliated will live outside of the Asia-Pacific, particularly in Europe and North America. By 2060, 9% of the global unaffiliated population will live in the United States alone, according to the projections.
Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. The term globalization first appeared in the early 20th century (supplanting an earlier French term mondialization), developed its current meaning some time in the second half of the 20th century, and came into popular use in the 1990s to describe the unprecedented international connectivity of the post-Cold War world. Its origins can be traced back to 18th and 19th centuries due to advances in transportation and communications technology. This increase in global interactions has caused a growth in international trade and the exchange of ideas, beliefs, and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that is associated with social and cultural aspects. However, disputes and international diplomacy are also large parts of the history of globalization, and of modern globalization.
Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, services, technology, and capital. Whereas the globalization of business is centered around the diminution of international trade regulations as well as tariffs, taxes, and other impediments that suppresses global trade, economic globalization is the process of increasing economic integration between countries, leading to the emergence of a global marketplace or a single world market. Depending on the paradigm, economic globalization can be viewed as either a positive or a negative phenomenon. Economic globalization comprises: globalization of production; which refers to the obtainment of goods and services from a particular source from locations around the globe to benefit from difference in cost and quality. Likewise, it also comprises globalization of markets; which is defined as the union of different and separate markets into a massive global marketplace. Economic globalization also includes competition, technology, and corporations and industries.
Reactions to processes contributing to globalization have varied widely with a history as long as extraterritorial contact and trade. Philosophical differences regarding the costs and benefits of such processes give rise to a broad-range of ideologies and social movements. Proponents of economic growth, expansion and development, in general, view globalizing processes as desirable or necessary to the well-being of human society.
Fiss, et al., surveyed US opinion in 1993. Their survey showed that, in 1993, more than 40% of respondents were unfamiliar with the concept of globalization. When the survey was repeated in 1998, 89% of the respondents had a polarized view of globalization as being either good or bad. At the same time, discourse on globalization, which began in the financial community before shifting to a heated debate between proponents and disenchanted students and workers. Polarization increased dramatically after the establishment of the WTO in 1995; this event and subsequent protests led to a large-scale anti-globalization movement.Initially, college educated workers were likely to support globalization. Less educated workers, who were more likely to compete with immigrants and workers in developing countries, tended to be opponents. The situation changed after the financial crisis of 2007. According to a 1997 poll 58% of college graduates said globalization had been good for the US. By 2008 only 33% thought it was good. Respondents with high school education also became more opposed.
Our existing measurement framework for economic activity in national accounts and the balance of payments is based on an "islands" view of the global economy. Taking the economic area (the "island") as their unit of survey, analysts measure economic activity within the island and the transactions between islands.2 In the simplest case, the workers, production processes, headquarters, management and owners of firms are all located in the same economic area, typically defined by a national boundary.
As a consequence, one can expect to find the following empirical relationships in the data. First, for countries (such as FCs) in which global firms tend to be headquartered, there should be a positive correlation between the current account balance and the portion of direct investment income that is not paid out to shareholders, measured as the difference between DII (credit) and PII (debit). Second, for countries (such as AEs) in which the shareholders of global firms tend to reside, there should be a positive correlation between the current account balance and PII (credit) . Finally, for countries (such as EMEs) that tend to host the operations of global firms, there should be a negative correlation between the current account balance and DII (debit).
In absolute terms, the largest electric car market in Europe in 2021 was Germany, where more than one in three new cars sold in November and December was electric. Overall, electric cars accounted for 17% of total European sales in 2021, but there were significant differences across markets. Norway at 72%, and Sweden and the Netherlands at 45% and 30% respectively, sat atop global rankings. At 25%, Germany had by far the highest market share among large European markets, followed by the United Kingdom and France (both around 15%), Italy (8.8%) and Spain (6.5%).
Despite impressive growth in major markets, the sales of electric cars are not advancing at the same pace globally. China, Europe and the United States account for roughly two-thirds of the overall car market but around 90% of electric car sales. In most other markets, electric cars account for less than 2% of overall sales, and in large developing economies such as Brazil, India and Indonesia, the share is still below 1% without any significant increase over the past year. While sales of electric scooters and buses are expanding in these countries, the price premium attached to electric cars and a lack of charging infrastructure are key reasons for the sluggish uptake. In Japan, electric car sales also barely increased, with their market share remaining below 1% over the past three years. Korea and Australia show the greatest dynamism among smaller markets. In Korea, electric car sales more than doubled in 2021 after two years without growth, increasing their market share to 8%. Electric car sales in Australia also more than tripled in 2021, albeit from a low baseline, bringing their market share above 2%.
Government policies remain the key driving force for global electric car markets, but their dynamism in 2021 also reflects a very active year on the part of the automotive industry. Announcements, targets and new model launches have helped strengthen the view that the future of cars is electric. At the same time, the huge success of electric vehicles was challenged by tight supplies for components and increases in the prices of bulk materials, bringing supply side concerns to the top of the agenda for government and industry alike.
Difficulties like those faced by Wal-Mart are easy to identify and often are easy to fix. Cultural differences, however, also concern deeply held beliefs, values, and customs that are more difficult to identify. Understanding cultural differences is particularly important for managers, because managers must understand their employees to motivate and lead them. Geert Hofstede, a Dutch management researcher, conducted a multiyear, multicountry study to identify ways to describe differences in national cultures. His research included more than 100,000 employees of a global corporation in 40 countries. A later study, called the GLOBE project, included 170,000 managers in 162 countries. These studies identified nine dimensions that describe differences in national cultures.
Deciding to engage in global business exposes companies to risks and hazards. However, when companies research conditions and plan and prepare for cultural differences, they can benefit from the advantages of globalization. In the next section we consider strategies managers can use to respond to cultural differences.
AWS delivers the highest network availability of any cloud provider. Each region is fully isolated and comprised of multiple AZs, which are fully isolated partitions of our infrastructure. To better isolate any issues and achieve high availability, you can partition applications across multiple AZs in the same region. In addition, AWS control planes and the AWS management console are distributed across regions, and include regional API endpoints, which are designed to operate securely for at least 24 hours if isolated from the global control plane functions without requiring customers to access the region or its API endpoints via external networks during any isolation. 041b061a72